Sunday, December 7, 2014

Chari Sambhu Temple - Gandharadi Temple - Junapanka - Jagati - Boudh District - Odisha

Chari Sambhu Temple:

Chari Sambhu Temple
Chari Sambhu Temple or Gandharadi Temple is situated at a distance  of 16 Km. from Boudh Near the village at Gandhradi in Jagati. 

Entrance Gate of Chari Sambhu Temple
 The famous twin temples of Nilamadhava and Sidheswar is situated here. One of the rarest to find, twin temples dedicated to Hari and Hara, two different cults of Visnu and Shiva is established on one single platform here at Gandharadi near Boudh town. 

Nilamadhava Temple
 This is a perfect example of the synchronization of the two cults. These temples were constructed under the patronage of the Bhanja rulers of Khinjali mandala in 9th century A.D. These two temples were built on one platform which are exactly similar to each other. 

Sidheswar Temple
 The one on the left hand is dedicated to Siva named Siddheswar and its sikhara  is surmounted by a Shivalinga.The second is dedicated to Vishnu ,named Nilamadhava  and its sikhara is surmounted by a wheel of blue chlorite. 

 The principle of construction of the Jagamohanas at gandharadi is slightly different than that of other temples. Their roofs are built on the cantilever principle and originally it appears to have been supported on twelve large pillars arranged as a hollow square. 

Thus each side had four pillars of which the  central ones flanked an opening. Originally these two Jagamohanas appear to have been open on all sides; but later on the lintels on all sides appear to have given away and then it became necessary to fill in the gaps between pillars with the exception of the four openings with ashlar masonry.  

At the same time the side openings   were filled up with a jali or lattice of blue chlorite towards the bottom and a frieze of four miniature temple sikharas  over it. This arrangement is not followed in later temples where the ingress of light into jagamohana is through four or five stone pillars in the opening used as window bars. 

God Nilamadhava
 The style of ornamentation in the jagamohans of the Gandharadi temples is altogether different. Even stylized chaitya-windows are rarely to be seen at Gandharadi except at the bases of the pilasters of the vimana . the ornamentation on these two jagamohans is very simple and much less overcrowded . 

Siddheswar Shiva Linga
 The importance of the Gandharadi temples lies in the fact that they provide a link  and that a very important one, in the chain of the evolution ,in the chain of the evolution of the mediaeval Orissan temple type. The Gandharadi temple is also locally known as ‘Chari Sambhu Mandira ‘ ( the temple of four Sambhus or Siva lingas). In the Siva temple Siddheswar is the presiding deity. In the Jagamohan  ,to the left of the door  leading to the sanctum is the siva Linga called Jogeswar and to the right of the door is the linga called Kapileswar. At a little distance from Siddheswar standsa the temples of Paschima  Somanath ( Siva), the door of the temple opening to the west. Some images of considerably antiquity are found worshipped in shrines nearby. Notable among them are the images of Ganesh in the temple of Paschima somanath and a beautiful  image of eight armed Durga worshipped under a banyan tree,the later image being badly eroded due to the vagaries of weather. These images probably once adorned the siddheswar temple .Portions of beautifully carved door steps in black chlorite and other decorative motifs have been  unearthed. In the vicinity of the temple. A five feet (1.52 meters) high Hanuman image of good workmanship is being worshipped near the village Jagati and a beautiful carved Nabagraha slab is lying in the cornfield. Archeological Survey of India has preserved this place. . The exterior of the temple is decorated with scroll work, latticed window and architectural motifs like elongated khakharamundis, naga-nagi pilasters, chaitya medallions etc. Rekha vimana and a flat-roofed jagamohana with clear-storey of early Kalingan order. On the basis of architectural features, i.e. the presence of a flat roofed rectangular jagamohana in front of the vimana, the temple can be assigned to the formative phase of the temple art of Orissa. Features like pista, four fold mouldings of the pabhaga, pilaster with ascending naga-nagi, use of chlorite stone in latticed window, use of akasachakra on the top of the khapuri presiding deities and stylistic features present in the temple assign the date to the later part of the transitional phase i.e. 9th century A.D.

How To Reach:

One can approach the site by a motorable road branching from Junapanka chowk on Sonepur – Boudh Road (N.H.224). It is about 3 kms from Junapanka.